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The justification was that a reconstitution of Oldenburg and Schaumburg-Lippe would contradict the objectives of paragraph 1.
An appeal against the decision was rejected as inadmissible by the Federal Constitutional Court. On 24 August , the binding provision for a new delimitation of the federal territory was altered into a mere discretionary one.
Paragraph 1 was rephrased, now putting the capacity to perform functions in the first place. The option for a referendum in the Federal Republic as a whole paragraph 4 was abolished.
Hence a territorial revision was no longer possible against the will of the population affected by it. The debate on territorial revision restarted shortly before German reunification.
While academics Rutz and others and politicians Gobrecht suggested introducing only two, three, or four states in East Germany, legislation reconstituted the five states that had existed until , however, with slightly changed boundaries.
Article 29 was again modified and provided an option for the states to "revise the division of their existing territory or parts of their territory by agreement without regard to the provisions of paragraphs 2 through 7 ".
Germany is a federal, parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The German political system operates under a framework laid out in the constitutional document known as the Grundgesetz Basic Law.
By calling the document the Grundgesetz , rather than Verfassung constitution , the authors expressed the intention that it would be replaced by a true constitution once Germany was reunited as one state.
Amendments to the Grundgesetz generally require a two-thirds majority of both chambers of the parliament; the fundamental principles of the constitution, as expressed in the articles guaranteeing human dignity, the separation of powers, the federal structure, and the rule of law are valid in perpetuity.
Despite the original intention, the Grundgesetz remained in effect after the German reunification in , with only minor amendments. The states are parliamentary republics and the relationship between their legislative and executive branches mirrors that of the federal system: The governments in Berlin , Bremen and Hamburg are the " senates ".
In the three free states of Bavaria , Saxony , and Thuringia , the government is the "state government" Staatsregierung ; and in the other ten states, the "Land government" Landesregierung.
The Senate was abolished following a referendum in The states of Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are governed slightly differently from the other states.
The parliaments in the remaining 13 states are referred to as Landtag State Parliament. The city-states of Berlin and Hamburg are subdivided into boroughs.
The City of Bremen consists of two urban districts: Bremen and Bremerhaven , which are not contiguous. In the other states there are the following subdivisions:.
This arrangement was meant to ease the friction caused by uniting the two culturally different regions into a single state after World War II.
From until , Saxony was divided into three districts called Direktionsbezirke since The state Free Hanseatic City of Bremen consists of two urban districts, while Berlin and Hamburg are states and urban districts at the same time.
Each consists of an elected council and an executive, which is chosen either by the council or by the people, depending on the state, the duties of which are comparable to those of a county executive in the United States , supervising local government administration.
The Landkreise have primary administrative functions in specific areas, such as highways, hospitals, and public utilities.
They are intended to implement simplification of administration at that level. Typically, a district-free city or town and its urban hinterland are grouped into such an association, or Kommunalverband besonderer Art.
Such an organization requires the issuing of special laws by the governing state, since they are not covered by the normal administrative structure of the respective states.
Every rural district and every Amt is subdivided into municipalities, while every urban district is a municipality in its own right.
Cities and towns are municipalities as well, also having city rights or town rights Stadtrechte. Nowadays, this is mostly just the right to be called a city or town.
However, in former times there were many other privileges, including the right to impose local taxes or to allow industry only within city limits.
The municipalities are ruled by elected councils and by an executive, the mayor, who is chosen either by the council or directly by the people, depending on the state.
The "constitution" for the municipalities is created by the states and is uniform throughout a state except for Bremen, which allows Bremerhaven to have its own constitution.
The municipalities have two major policy responsibilities. First, they administer programs authorized by the federal or state government. Such programs typically relate to youth, schools, public health, and social assistance.
Second, Article 28 2 of the Basic Law guarantees the municipalities "the right to regulate on their own responsibility all the affairs of the local community within the limits set by law.
For instance, many municipalities develop and expand the economic infrastructure of their communities through the development of industrial trading estates.
Local authorities foster cultural activities by supporting local artists, building arts centres , and by holding fairs.
Local government also provides public utilities, such as gas and electricity, as well as public transportation.
The majority of the funding for municipalities is provided by higher levels of government rather than from taxes raised and collected directly by themselves.
In five of the German states, there are unincorporated areas , in many cases unpopulated forest and mountain areas, but also four Bavarian lakes that are not part of any municipality.
As of January 1, , there were such areas, with a total area of Only four unincorporated areas are populated, with a total population of about 2, The following table gives an overview.
In , the number of unincorporated areas was , with a total area of 4, However, the unincorporated areas are continually being incorporated into neighboring municipalities, wholly or partially, most frequently in Bavaria.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the states of modern Germany. For other uses, see States of Germany disambiguation. For other uses, see Regions of Germany disambiguation.
Human rights Federal Constitutional Court. Joint Committee Gemeinsamer Ausschuss. Electoral system Political parties Referendums. List of historic states of Germany and History of Germany.
List of districts of Germany. Germany portal European Union portal. The loan word Land is written with a capital "L" and is used in the official English version of the Basic Law  and in UK parliamentary proceedings.
This is sometimes translated to "Federal State" in English, even though federal state in English usually refers to the federation as a whole, and not its members.
Although the term Land applies to all the states, each of the states of Bavaria , Saxony , and Thuringia describes itself as a Freistaat free state.
The expression is based on early 20th-century attempts to create a genuinely German alternative for the loan word Republik and to express the end of the German monarchies.
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Samenvatting Die Parlamente der Stadtstaaten sind infolge ihrer Doppelrolle als Landes- und Gemeindeorgane einbezogen in Entscheidungsprozesse nicht nur staatlichen, sondern auch stadtischen Charakters.
Die Ein- beziehung in kommunale Entscheidungsprozesse ist am starksten in Hamburg wegen der noch schwachen Stellung der Bezirksorgane, deutlich geringer in Berlin, wo die Kompetenzen der Bezirke so umfassend sind, dass juristisch darin bereits eine Abwendung vom Grundsatz reiner Stadtstaatlichkeit gesehen wird.
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